Monthly Archives: January 2017

How Do Protozoans Obtain Their Nutrition?

Nature encompasses alluring, enchanting organisms one can think. These creatures may range from smallest protozoans to largest mammals. All the creatures require food for getting energy. The method of capturing food differs in different group of taxa. The way in which the protozoans devour their prey is also magnificent. The mechanism of getting nutrition is also amazing. Nutrition is a process of taking food in and digesting it and assimilating it to obtain energy. The ways in which the protozoans obtain their nourishment also varies drastically. They represent almost every type of nutrition. They may be holozoic, holophytic, parasitic, coprozoic, mixotrophic, saprozoic.

1. Holozoic Nutrition

The majority of Protozoans nourish themselves in the manner as the higher organisms did. They are able to feed on various micro-organisms, rotifers, crustaceans, other protozoans etc. Such protozoans are termed as Holozoic. They may be carnivorous, herbivorous, omnivorous or scavangerous. Holozoic nutrtion is also termed as zootrophic nutrition. This type of nutrition involves three basic steps:

A. Food Capture and ingestion

The regular method of food intake is also termed as phagocytosis, which differs greatly in different classes of protozoa. The locomotory organelles play an important role in food capture and ingestion. Rhumbler has defined four methods in which the locomotory organelles participate in food capture and ingestion.

a. Circumvallation

This method is very common Amoeba. Here the prey is surrounded by the locomotory organelle termed as pseudopodia from all the sides without coming in direct contact with the prey and a cup is formed. The food cup is later on completed by forming a food vacuole enclosing the prey with large amount of water.

b. Circumfluence

This method is aided by the locomotory organelles termed as axopodia and reticulopodia for capturing an immobile prey. A food cup is formed by direct contact with the prey and cytoplasm flows around the prey for engulfing it.

c. Invagination

In this case, the prey is first killed by a toxin secreted by the pseudopodia and then it is enclosed in the form of a food vacuole along with cytoplasm.

d. Import

In this case, the passive prey like the filamentous alga is simply drawn into the body upon contact and ingested. The general body surface plays an important role in this process.

B. Digestion and Assimilation

Digestion is always intracellular. The food vacuole is surrounded by a film. Acids, alkalies and enzymes are poured over the food to ensure digestion. The reaction is first acidic then alkaline. The prey is killed in the acidic environment which lasts for 4-60 minutes. Digestion mostly occurs in the alkaline phase. The digestive enzymes are aided by the lysosomes. Protein splitting proteases and starch splitting amylases are of wide occurrence. The presence of fat splitting lipase is controversial.

C. Egestion

In naked forms like Amoeba, the undigested matter goes out from the hinder part of the body. In some ciliates egestion occurs through a permanent opening present at the posterior end of the body termed as cytopyge.

2. Holophytic Nutrition

This mode of nutrition is also termed as autotrophic nutrition. This is very common in chlorophyll bearing flagellates. These organisms carry out photosynthesis with the help of carbon dioxide, water and chlorophyll. The oxygen is liberated and the left carbon is used for making food. The starch is stored in the form of amylum but in Euglena it is stored in the form of paramylum which is not colored with iodine. Certain protozoans house symbiotic green alga that carry out photosynthesis and provides food to them.

3. Saprozoic Nutrition

This mode of nutrition is also termed as osmotrophy. Here the flagellates that are in direct contact with the organic matter of the decomposed plants and animals obtain their nourishment. They obtain their food in the form of dissolved material.

4. Pinocytosis

This is also termed as cell drinking.It was first studied by Mast and Doyle in 1934 in Amoeba proteus. Pinocytotic channels are formed in the body for absorbing liquid food from the surrounding medium. This method helps the organism in getting higher molecular compounds from the surrounding medium.

5. Parasitic Nutrition

The Sporozoans are completely parasitic and obtain their nourishment by living as parasites in the body of other animals. They fall under two categories:

a. Commensals

They feed on the raw or digested material of the host in saprozoic manner. They are harmless endocommensals. E.g., Nyctotherus, Balantidium

b. Pathogenic

About 26 species of protozoa are known to be parasitic to humans. They are responsible for causing dreadful diseases like Sleeping sickness, Malaria etc.

6. Coprozoic Nutrition

Many free living Protozoans feed on the faecal matter of other animals and are termed as coprozoic. Eg., Cercomonas etc.

7. Mixotrophic Nutrition

Several Protozoans are able to get their nutrition in more than one way. Euglena gracilis is able to take nutrition both holophytically as well as saprozoically.

Whatever may be means of devouring food all leads to adaptation to colossal environment.

Why Product Demonstrations Make Better Business Sense

Walk into any store or mall today, whether it is a grocery store or a boutique store, a high-end mall or the shopping center next door, and chances are that you will see a product demonstration going on there. This could be to demonstrate an electrical appliance, such as a kitchen appliance, or it could be to demonstrate a new cosmetic or beauty product, or it could be a food demonstration that gives people a chance to sample the food or beverage that is being marketed. No matter what category of shopping center promotions you see, you can rest assured that there will be a beeline of people eagerly waiting to get a sample or try the new product. This could be just the curious among the shoppers or those who are serious shoppers who are ready to actually buy the product.

Even if the product demonstration is given to 10 people, you can rest assured that at least half of those would be willing to buy the product after trying it out. This is why a product demonstration is such an effective form of marketing for companies across different industries as it gives a much better return on investment than other forms of advertising, while also being cost effective. Unlike print, electronic, and digital media or social media marketing which can tend to get very expensive, a product demonstration is more value for money and delivers results, especially when planned, designed, and implemented by a professional company that has considerable experience and expertise in shopping center promotions.

One of the major areas that shopping center promotions are so successful is in the food and beverage industry. This is because a food demonstration gives people the chance to actually taste, smell, and/or see what the food or beverage product is like. This is a totally different experience, one that allows them to enjoy the product using their five senses. Compared to just reading about the product, or seeing it on television, or seeing it on the supermarket shelf, the experience of actually sampling the product, experiencing what it tastes like, smells like, and looks like, is enough to make most people actually buy the product. This is true even if they have been loyal to a certain brand for many years.

A product demonstration is especially effective in households where the children are the decision makers when it comes to buying food and beverages! Children are known to be notoriously loyal and stick to a favorite brand. Parents do not often want to upset this status quo. So the most effective way that companies can get such a demographic to buy their new brand is to give the children a chance to sample the product! And this is something that most children will love to do, as they are naturally curious. Once they are won over, then winning over their parents is a walk in the park! This is something that a television commercial or a print advertisement cannot achieve, no matter how well made or expensive it may be!

How Technology Has Changed Our Kitchen Appliances

Modern day technology has changed the way that we cook and eat in our kitchens. We can easily see this with the many gadgets and kitchen appliances found in kitchens all over the world. As kitchen technology has evolved, our dependence for such innovative products has also increased. With busy daily schedules, the technology used in kitchen appliances shapes our lives because of how easily they make it to prepare and cook healthier meals.

The kitchen is the busiest place in our house because this is where our everyday food is being prepared and consumed. Besides appliances such as food processors, which have made preparing foods so easy, perhaps the most revolutionary technologies are the appliances that have made clean up a breeze when using a dishwasher. Since the invention of the computer, there are very few kitchen appliances today that are not powered by computer programs and memory chips. From our can opener to our ovens, every electrical appliance that we use is operated using technology. The good thing about these changes is that this breakthrough has contributed so much in easing up our daily activities especially with cooking healthy meals.

Kitchen appliances have evolved so much since the discovery of gas ovens that now new modern appliances are not just manufactured to be more efficient but designed to suite the taste of our decorative styles. The most modern day appliances we typically see now are indicators of what was lacking in the past when women needed to put extra effort on their cooking needs. Some of these modern kitchen appliances include the freezer with no frost, automatic toast makers, dishwashers, microwave ovens, sandwich makers and juice extractors. Not only do these appliances do terrific jobs of cooking and cleaning, you can buy them in complete packages to match the style of your kitchen. Now the person who is in charge of the kitchen does not have to worry about doing all of the cooking, baking, grilling, grinding and washing the dishes at the same time. With the push of a button, everything is literally taken care of.

As a result, technology has not only increased the values of our kitchens, it has made cooking once again enjoyable. You can now easily watch or listen to your favorite show while you enjoy preparing a wonderful meal for your family. As kitchen appliances improve, so will our time increase that we get to spend with loved ones.

Doctor of Naturopathy Medicine (NMD) – A Rewarding Profession in Alternative Medicine

Naturopathy medicine or natural medicine is one of the emerging medicine fields in alternative medicine science and based on the belief that the human body has a natural healing ability. It is one of its own kinds of medicine that majorly involves nontoxic and holistic approach and primarily stress on prevention of disease by focusing on maintaining the wellness. Though the roots of the medicine practice have been around for many years, but in the last few years the mainstream culture has widely adapted this style of curing treatment in form of naturopathy as an effective modality of health care. In fact, today the ratio of naturopathic medicine doctors has increased dramatically and many young students are opting for career in naturopathic medicine as naturopathy doctor.

Today it is hard to deny the fact that profession like doctor of naturopathic medicine is gaining huge popularity and has its own reward that is just beyond any comparison. It is a career that offers ample opportunities for doctor to help patients improve their health by using natural therapies that have been around for thousands of years. In this profession, naturopathy doctors strive to treat their patients individually, and generally spend more time with their patients in comparison to the medical doctors. They combine the wisdom of nature with the rigors of modern science as well, which is very rare to be found in any other medicine science.

Many people often consider a naturopathic doctor very similar to the medical doctor, but there is basic difference between both of them. In comparison to medical doctor, the doctor of naturopathic medicine studies holistic and non-hazardous approaches towards treatment with a strong emphasis on optimizing wellness. Adding to this, some people even think that naturopathy doctors do not make decent money, but it is a very wrong misconception. In fact, if we talk in terms of salary, most of these doctors make a very reasonable salary, because there is a high demand for alternative medicine.

Apart from this, today there is a very high requirement for naturopathic medicine doctors in hospitals, clinics and community health centers as well. Overall the future prospect of this profession seems to be very bright. So in case, if you are looking to make a career in this field you need to opt for naturopathy course from a well recognized and accredited alternative medicine institute. Following your studies under naturopathic medicine program can help you get trained in various essential elements like clinical nutrition, acupuncture, and psychology and more. Generally, naturopathy programs conducted in alternative medicine institutes includes a minimum of 2 semesters of 9 months each. Though, at times this duration may vary accordingly.

The course includes paper on various subjects like botanical medicine, acupressure, hydrotherapy, gynaecology and many more. Moreover, theses days there are many alternative medicine institutes that are also offering naturopathy distance education programs as well. However, it doesn’t matter, whether you choose naturopathy correspondence course or on-campus program, once you complete the naturopathy course and obtain a Doctor of Naturopathic medicine degree, you become eligible for a wide variety of natural medicine careers, including massage therapy, Acupuncture, Aroma Therapy, Reflexology, health education and more. Certainly, it is one of the major upcoming professions and offer rewards and options that are just beyond any comparisons.

How to Run a Bakery

Running a bakery requires a lot of things all coming together at once.

I prefer the term, “The Daily Operational Requirements of a Bakery” rather than “how to run a bakery”.

The word “running”, is a term used in the sports field and though we as bakers do a lot of fast movements and it might seem to some that we are literally running from place to place. It is structured and designed to make as much use of our production time as is humanly possible.

Also running in a bakery business is one of the top reasons for professional accidents. The only time anyone should be running in a bakery business, is in the event of an emergency!

Now as far as the heading is concerned we are running a bakery but of course as I have explained my preferred term is the day to day operations of a bakery.

For some, it is also going to be a headache. It is certainly going to be a fun and rewarding experience to others. But it can also be your worst nightmare!

I am telling you this right up front…

…NOT to scare you into giving up your business venture, but to open your eyes, so you can see outside the box.

You have heard that statement many times i am sure. But, if you can think outside the box then many of the challenges will seem like an easy crossword puzzle. (Unless you hate crossword puzzles of course).

YOU!

YES you!

Whatever you do will be imprinted onto your business and whatever your employee does will also have a bearing upon “YOUR” business. It is therefore up to you to know as much about that business as is humanly possible.

What you don’t know can be purchased, such as managers, accountants and lawyers.

You will need to oversee every aspect or employ someone with whom you have complete trust and I do mean complete trust. This person will be spending YOUR money. They will be operating YOUR business. They may not be writing the checks, but they maybe designing the production flow and controlling your staff so that is where I say they are spending your money.

So, just what is involved with how to run a bakery?

Or as I have already said, arrange the daily operation of the bakery production.

One of the first operations is to cost your purchases and then cost the recipe’s you will use to acquire a sale price to pay all the expenses of your business.

Of course I am assuming here that you have already written your business plan and you have arranged an ingredient supplier, these are the steps to become a profitable bakery business.

The daily operations of the bakery are going to change every day. This is because production will change daily. After-all the chance of selling out every product every day is unrealistic – NOT impossible, but not likely.

We of course strive to produce just enough so that few pieces are left over. That way the product is at its freshest.

In the bakery we produce bread dough’s, and some of those bread dough’s require a bench time and some bread dough’s are what we call “No-Time” dough’s. So it is important that we arrange our time to work all these productions times into a standard operation for optimum use of every piece of equipment as well as utilizing our oven space appropriately.

Besides the bread dough’s we also make cakes and cookies, pies and other products that require different operational procedures. They also bake at different times and temperature.

Breads bake at a temperature of 400 to 450 degrees. But if you were to put a sugared top puff pastry product into that same oven, three things will occur.

1. The sugar will burn
2. The puff pastry will not cook correctly

3. The time, ingredients, labor and product are wasted!

Similarly, if you make meringues, the oven temperature will be 150 – 175 degrees so trying to bake a sponge

cake or bread at that temperature will be the same result of number three above.

In most bakeries, that is a small bakery with just a few employees will use a system called “baking down”.

Baking down is a way to run a bakery by baking all the highest temperature products first then the cake production then the cookie products and finally the meringues.

The products are then cooled, decorated, packaged and sold.